Rectangular Coordinate Plane

 In the plane rectangular coordinate system is also called as Cartesian coordinate system or the x-y coordinate system. The rectangular coordinate system is a set of 2 intersecting lines and perpendicular axis is forming a xy plane or line. The horizontal axis is commonly labeled the x-axis and the vertical axis is commonly labeled the y-axis. The 2 x and y axes are divide the plane into 4 parts is called the quadrants.




The Brief Description about Rectangular Coordinate in Plane:

In any points on the plane is corresponds to an ordered pair (x, y). Where x and y coordinates are real numbers. Where the x is the x coordinate or horizontal axis or abscissa and y is the y coordinate or vertical axis or ordinate.  In the plane the rectangular coordinate system consists of four quadrants, a horizontal axis (x), a vertical axis (y), and the origin coordinates (0, 0). The origin is the point where the 2 axes x and y cross. Order pair notation is called an ordered pair.

Rectangular coordinate system in plane:

The position of the point P in a plane or line in the rectangular coordinate system is defined as follows:

Draw the lines PA and PB perpendicular is to X and Y:

rectangular plane

rectangular plane


The segment OA = a measures of the distance of the x-axis (the x-coordinate) and the perpendicular distance of the AP = OB = b measures the y-coordinate. The point P coordinates are (a, b).

It is may be positive or negative depending upon the directions of segment OA and OB. The ‘a’ is called as the abscissa of the point and the ‘b’ is called the ordinate of the point.

The point P has abscissa x = 2, and the ordinate y = -4 (scale unit is 1cm = 1 unit). This is written as P (2, -4). Usually the notation P (a, b) means that the point P has abscissa x = a, the ordinate y = b.

Draw the Rectangular Coordinate Plane:

  • If a point A is (3, -4), then its abscissa is 3 and ordinate is -4.
  • If a point B is (-3, 4), then its abscissa is -3 and ordinate is 4.
  • If a point S is (-4, 2) then its abscissa is -4 and ordinate is 2.
  • If a point S is (-4, -2) then its abscissa is -4 and ordinate is -2.
rectangular plane graph

rectangular plane graph


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